The Deities, Gods, and Pharoahs Page




Welcome to the main historical area. I've always been a "closet Egyptologist". Here you will find knowledge about Deities, Gods, and Pharoahs. I'm not going to list the history of every ruler because frankly, you'd have to be an avid egyptology fan to read all that...its THAT extensive. I will, however, list the Dynasties and their respective rulers (See the bottom of this web page for the list), then give you information on the more interesting Pharoahs in the top section. Make sure and check out the other Ancient Egypt pages on our site for additional pictures and information.

Deities, Gods, and Pharoahs Alphabetically Listed




Aker (Akeru, Akerui):

The Symbol of Aker
Aker guarded the gates of the dawn from which the Sun rose each morning. Aker provided a safe passage for the barque of the Sun during its nightly journey through the underworld. (He ruled over the meeting point between the eastern and western horizons in the underworld) Aker was portrayed as a double-headed lion or two lions sitting back-to-back. Between the lions hangs the Sun. In this way they formed the "Akhet symbol", which symbolized the horizon. (with one head facing the east and the other head facing the west, they witness the sun rise and set) Sometimes the lions were portrayed bearing the Akhet on their backs. The two lions were called "Sef" which means yesterday and "Duau", which means today. Because Egyptians believed that the gates of the morning and evening were guarded by Aker, they often placed statues of lions at the doors of their palaces and tombs. This was to guard the households and tombs from evil spirits. Eventually they gave these statues human heads and this type of statuary was called a Sphinx.



Amenhotep III 1390-1352 BC & Akhenaten 1352-1336 BC

Akhenaten, His Wife Nefertiti, and Their Children Offering to Aton (The Sun) Amenhotep III Bust
Amenhotep III was an 18th dynasty king who ruled at a time when Egypt was at the peak of her glory. He lived a life of pleasure, building huge temples and statues, but unlike his predecessors, encouraged realism in art. A rarity among Egyptian kings, he married Tiyi, a non-royal. Most royal marriages are not ordinarily made of love, there is usually a political motive. But there is evidence of Amenhotep’s genuine regard for Tiyi: It is recorded that, in her Town of T’aru he made for her a lake 3600 cubits long by 600 cubits wide. He then held a festival on this lake with himself and Tiyi sailing a boat called the "Disk of Beauties".

Upon beginning his rule, their son Akhenaten went even further to break with tradition and it cost him dearly. He tried to change the Egyptian peoples' religion to a concept of godhead which was both monotheistic and abstract. He worshiped the Sun (Aten/Aton) as the one true god. The Egyptian people were not ready for this and he became very unpopular with many. In honor of Aton, Akhenaton changed his name to mean "beneficial to Aton" (he was originally called Amenhotep IV).

Akhenaten also introduced an entirely new and more intimate form of expression into Egyptian art. Among the surviving works of this period are the colossal statues of Akhenaten, the paintings from his private residence, the bust of his wife, Nefertiti and his mother Queen Tiyi. These works are unique in Egyptian art, they do not flatter the king and his family but reveal the real people in all their beauty and decay. They demonstrate a sophistication and creative freedom which was certainly revolutionary in their time.

However, this artistic renaissance was short lived; Akhenaten made himself unpopular by closing the temples and his lack of enthusiasm for the practical duties of kingship was to the detriment of Egypt's Imperial interests. Eventually his successor and son-in-law, the famous Tutankhamun, returned Egypt to its traditional values. Akhenaten's memory was erased and his image removed from many temples and art works. Later, Egyptian historians would only refer to him as the "heretic king"...the nameless one.



Amon (Amen, Amun, Ammon, Amoun):

A Golden Statue of Amon Hellenized mask of Ammon
The word Amen means "what is hidden", "what is not seen", "what cannot be seen". Amon was said to be a god who protected the weak from the strong, and he was an upholder of justice. Ammon was the Egyptian Ram God. According to murals at the ancient temple of Luxor, this fertility god assumed the form of the reigning king in order to procreate, and divinify, the royal lineage. The transformation of horned beast to god reflects the animal's crucial importance in Neolithic herdsman culture. The patron of Thebes, Ammon spoke through oracles and was equated by the Greeks with Zeus. In his name we find the universal sound (amen, amin, aum) whose utterance was holy. Those who requested favors from Amon were required to demonstrate their worthiness or to confess their sins first. The strength of a god would add power to the position of a Pharaoh. But as Amon grew in popularity, his priests grew increasingly powerful in influence and wealth, and they often attempted to assert themselves in the political arena. When the Queen Hatshepsut (see her below) found supporters among the priests of Amon, she honored their god by claiming that he was her father and she built her temple in Deir el-Bahri in his honor. Smart Lady! This political maneuvering helped to destroy Amon's popularity, and thus lessen the power the priests held. Amon's wife was the mother-goddess "Mut" and his son was the moon, "Khensu".







Ammut (The Devourer):

Ammut and Anubis During The Weighing Of The Heart Ammut

Ammut was a very important diety to the Egyptians because she was present in the Hall of Ma'at for the Weighing of the Heart in judgement for the Afterlife. It was Ammut who would devour the souls of those who's hearts proved heavier than Ma'at. This was a terrifying prospect for the Ancient Egyptians. It meant the end of existence, for they would never meet Osiris and live forever in the Fields of Peace.



Anubis (Yinepu, Anpu):

Anubis in Human Form
A Sculpture I Made of Anubis in Jackal Form (I fell in love with the original ancient piece and reproduced it)

Anubis, the original God of the Underworld and jackal-god of mummification. (I say original because his role was usurped by Osiris as he rose in popularity). Anubis assisted in the rites by which the dead were admitted to the underworld, such as the weighing of the heart in the Hall of Ma'at. The Hall of Ma'at was where the deceased would be judged for worthiness and acceptance into the Afterlife. If the heart was free from the impurities of sin the deceased would enter the Afterlife. Anubis was worshipped as the inventor of embalming and it was he who embalmed the dead Osiris, thereby helping to preserve him that he might live again. Anubis had three major functions: He supervised the embalming of bodies, he received the mummy into the tomb and performed the "Opening of the Mouth" ceremony, and he then conducted the soul in the Field of Celestial Offerings. It is also Anubis that protects the dead from Ammut, the "Devourer". Anubis was also the keeper of poisons and medicines. Most importantly though, Anubis monitored the Scales of Truth in the Hall of Ma'at to protect the dead from deception and eternal death. Anubis was often seen accompanying Isis. Anubis was the son of Nephthys, and his father was Osiris. One myth says that Nephthys got Osiris drunk and the resultant seduction brought forth Anubis. Yet another says she disguised herself as Isis and seduced Osiris and subsequently gave birth to Anubis. Anubis was also worshipped under the form "Upuaut" meaning "Opener of the Ways", and this form appeared with a rabbit's head.



Aten, Aton (The Sun God):

The Long Rays of Aten

Aten was depicted as a Sun disk with rays reaching to the earth. At the end of the rays were human hands which often extended the Ankh to the Pharaoh. Aten was called the creator of man and the nurturing spirit of the world. Aten was solely worshipped by Pharoah Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) and his first wife Nefertiti and this caused much discord in the kingdom. (see Akhenaten above) Akhenaten's successors did all they could to erase Akhenaten and his beloved Aten from the public eye. Eventually, Akhenaten became abandoned and the name "Akhenaten" was called a "heretic king."





Bastet (Bast):

A Statue of Bast in Female Form A Statue of Bast in Cat Form

Bast was usually represented as a cat or a woman with the head of a domesticated cat. Up until 1000 B.C. she was portrayed as a lioness, however, when she was shown as a lioness, she was associated with sunlight. She was heavily connected with the Moon, and her son Khensu was God of the Moon. Bastet was the Goddess of cats, fire, pregnant women, and of the home. Cats were very important pets in Egyptian society. According to one myth, she was the personification of the soul of Isis. She was also called the "Lady of the East". Bast represented a duality in that she possessed a gentle and fierce side. When docile she was protector of the home, but when she was fierce she was feared in battle. She was identified with the goddess Sekhmet, and they were called the Goddesses of the West (Sekhmet) and the East (Bastet). Both were shown with the heads of lionesses although Bastet was said to wear green, while Sekhmet wore red.





Bes:
Bes A Statue of Bes At the Temple of Hathor

Bes was the patron God and protector of women in childbirth and of newly born children. He was also the god of music and dance, the god of war and slaughter, and a destroying force of nature. Bes was usually depicted as a bearded dwarf with a leonine face and a protruding tongue. (The protruding tongue was a sign of challenge sent to the evildoers that would harm young children). He has a flat nose, bushy eyebrows and hair, and large projecting ears. As a god of music he is sometimes shown playing a harp. As a warrior he wears a short military tunic and holds a shield and a short sword. On some occasions, he was represented as a lion or armed with swords, spears and maces, symbolizing his power and fierceness.





Cleopatra (The Last Pharoah):

A Painting Depicting Cleopatra in Death Cleopatra, the Last Pharoah Cleopatra (69-30 B.C.) is one character in Ancient Egyptian Mythology that has more misinformation spread about her than is imaginable! Firstly, Cleopatra was not Egyptian, she was Greek. Her family lived in Egypt for over 300 years, but her blood lineage was Greek, and that was how the Egyptians regarded her. (She was Macedonian by descent, and was the only person in her family to learn the Egyptian language). Secondly, all people remember her for was beauty, when in truth, she was a brilliant woman. She was fluent in nine languages, an advanced mathematician, and plotted with the best of them! As children, Cleopatra and her siblings witnessed the defeat of their guardian, Pompey, by Julius Caesar. According to Egyptian law, to ascend the throne Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son. At 17 she was married to her younger brother (who was 12), Ptolemy XIII. Later, Cleopatra and her brother/husband Ptolemy XIII dueled over the throne. During all this turmoil, Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC. During his stay in the Palace, he received the most famous gift in history... an oriental carpet with the 22 year old Cleopatra wrapped in it. (She counted on Caesar's support to alienate Ptolemy XIII). With the arrival of Roman reinforcements, and after a few battles in Alexandria, Ptolemy XIII was defeated and killed. Caesar and Cleopatra became lovers, and she bore him a son, Caesarion. Another myth was that Caeser was in love with Cleopatra...in love with her money was more the case. Caesar's people, the Romans, were not too happy over this union or his politics, and he was assasinated. Rome's empire was then pulled into a tug-of-war between Mark Antony and Octavian. Cleopatra watched and waited, and when Mark Antony seemed to prevail, she supported him, became his lover, and bore him twins. Antony agreed to kill Cleopatra's sister so that she wouldn't have any challenges to her throne. He then went back to his wife. Mark Antony's alliance with Cleopatra angered Rome even more. The senators called her a sorceress, and accused her of all sorts of evil. The Romans became even more furious as Antony was giving away parts of their empire (Tarsus, Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and Palestine) to Cleopatra and their children. Octavian declared war on Cleopatra and Egypt lost. Octavian waited for over a year before he claimed Egypt as a Roman "province". He arrived in Alexandria and easily defeated Mark Antony. Antony asked to be taken to Cleopatra, where he committed suicide by falling on his own sword and he died in her arms. Cleopatra saw to it he was buried as a King. Defeated and alone, Cleopatra made her final move. Octavian led Cleopatra to believe that she was going to be disgracefully paraded through Rome as a slave in chains. Rather than be humiliated by Octavian, Cleopatra killed herself. It is said she let the bite of a deadly Asp (snake) take her life, this is conjecture...but, there were two small marks on her arm when her body was found. (Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality, and so with this act, she achieved her dying wish...to not be forgotten). Cleopatra was only 39 when she died...the last ruling Pharoah. Sadly, after Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia...Octavian's sister.



Geb (The Great Cackler):
Geb Geb Underneath His Wife 'Nut', Goddess of the Sky

Geb was thought to represent the Earth, and as a vegetation-god he was shown with green patches or plants on his body. He is shown either as a dark or green skinned man representing the colors of life, the soil of the Nile and vegetation...thus the leaves on his skin. Geb was called The Great Cackler because the goose was a sacred animal to Geb, and it was said that Geb's laughter was the source of earthquakes. In addition, Geb guided the dead to the Otherworld and he gave them food and drink.





Hathor (Het-heru, Het-Hert):
Hathor As a Cow Emerging From a Papyrus Clump Hathor in Human Form

Hathor was the "Eye of Ra". She was daughter of Nut and Ra, wife of Ra, and mother of Ihy. Many legends portray her as the mother of Horus the Elder. Other as the wife of Horus of Edfu, The fruit of this union was Horus the Younger. Hathor's name is translated as "the House of Horus", which may be a reference to her as the embodiment of the sky in her role of the Celestial Cow. The name "Hathor" is the Greek corruption of the Egyptian variants Het-Hert ("the House Above") and Het-Heru ("the House of Horus"). Both terms refer to her as a sky goddess, and the latter shows her as the consort of Horus. In later times she is often connected with, or even equated with, Isis. She was most often depicted as a cow with the sundisk between her horns or as a slender woman wearing the horns and a sundisk. (She was also shown as a hippopotamus, a falcon, a cobra, or a lioness headdress at times) Priests of Hathor were often oracles and midwives, and people could go to some temples of Hathor to have their dreams interpreted. Hathor was the goddess of joy, motherhood, and love. Hathor's protection was invoked over children and pregnant women. She was also the patron of love, dance, alcohol, and foreign lands. Hathor is also known as the "Lady to the Limit" (limit meaning the edges of the known universe), and the "Lady of the West". Her image is sometimes seen on funerary depictions as she stands behind Osiris, welcoming the dead to their new home. Hathor was also known as the "Lady of Greenstone and Malachite" due to her being regarded as a goddess of the desert fringes where such mines existed.





Horus (Heru, He Who Is Above):
A Wall Painting of Horus A Statue of Horus, If You Look Behind-You'll See A Wall Painting of Him Also
The name "Horus" is a general catch-all for multiple deities, and the most famous of them is Harseisis (Heru-sa-Aset) or "Horus, Son-of-Isis" (sometimes called Horus the Younger). Horus was an Egyptian sky god. He was usually depicted as a falcon or in human form with the head of a falcon. The sun and the moon were said to be his eyes. The Egyptian Pharaoh was believed to be an incarnation of Horus, and the name of Horus formed part of his name. Horus the younger was son of Isis and Osiris, and avenged his father's murder by Set. (see our Egyptians Legends Page) In his battle with Set, Horus lost his left eye, which signified the moon. The eye was healed by the god Thoth, and the restored eye, known as the "udjat" (see our Symbols Page), became a powerful amulet. Symbolically, Horus defeats Set each dawn when the darkness is overcome by the morning sun. Various "Horus gods" appear in Egyptian mythology. Originally, many of them were separate deities, but eventually they were all blended into one and were considered various aspects of the same god. Among them are: Harpokrates (The infant Horus), Harsiesis (Horus, the son of Isis), Harmachis, Harmakhet (Horus who is on the horizon), Haroeris, Heru-ur (Horus the elder), Horus-Behdety (Horus of Behdet), Horus Khenty en Maathyu (Horus at the head of those who see not, also called blind Horus), Horus Khenty Khat (Horus at the head of the belly), and Horus Netcher Nedjeitef (Horus the god, he who avenges his father), Ra-Harakhte (Horus of the two horizons), Haroeris (Horus the Elder), and Har-pa-Neb-Taui (Horus Lord of the Two Lands).





Isis (Iset, Auset):
Isis Protecting Pharoah Sehibra A Golden Statue of Isis
Isis, daughter of Seb and Nut, sister and wife of Osiris, sister of Set, and twin sister of Nephthys, was believed to be the most powerful magician in the universe (due to the fact that she had learned the Secret Name of Ra from the god himself). She was a goddess of motherhood, fertility, marital devotion, healing the sick, and the working of magical spells and charms. Isis is one of the earliest and most important goddess in ancient Egypt, and she was regarded as the feminine counterpart to Osiris. No other Egyptian deity has stood the test of time as well as Isis. Her cult was not extinguished with the other Egyptian gods, but was embraced by the Greeks and Romans, and her worship has even lasted into the present day. Isis was a great enchantress, the goddess of magic. Together with Thoth, she taught mankind the secrets of medicine. She was the embalmer and guardian of Osiris. She is often rendered on the foot of coffins with long wings spread to protect the deceased. She was originally the personification of the throne (her name is written with the hieroglyph for throne), and as such, she was an important source of the Pharaoh's power. (See the story of Isis and Osiris on our Legends Page).





Khufu (Builder of the Great Pyramid):
A Statue of Khufu

Khufu was the 4th Dynasty Pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid of Giza (one of the Seven Wonders of the World). Khufu was the son of another great pyramid builder, King Sneferu, and Khufu’s mother’s name was Hetepheres. The Great Pyramid stands witness to the ability of Khufu to lead and coordinate his people. Current theories espouse that the building of the Great Pyramid was not achieved by slave labor. In addition to the splendor of the Great Pyramid, an exciting discovery of an ancient wooden boat was found sealed in a pit at the base of the Great pyramid. In addition to the splendor of the Great Pyramid, an exciting ancient wooden boat was found sealed in a pit at the base of the Great pyramid. This boat was restored and is currently housed in a climate controlled museum over the site of the original pit. Sadly, the statue you see here is one of the very few representations of Khufu still in existence.









Nefertiti (Wife of Pharoah Akhenaten)
A Famous Bust of Nefertiti Shows Her Graceful Beauty
Nefertiti, one of the most beautiful Queens of the Amarna period, was wife of Akhenaten, the "heretic king". Her name meant "the beautiful one has come". She supported her husband faithfully in his campaigns, and was given unusual prominence in temple and palace reliefs. Nefertiti was active in the religious and cultural changes initiated by her husband, and she had the position as priest as a devoted worshipper of the god Aten. Nefertiti was the only queen addressed in prayers and therefore was accorded divinity while her husband was still alive. Nefertiti is displayed with a prominence that other Egyptian queens were not. Her name is enclosed in a royal Cartouche, and there are in fact, more statues and drawings of her than of Akhenaten. Some have even claimed that it was Nefertiti, not Akhenaten, who instigated the monotheistic religion of Aten. She bore Akhenaten six daughters, and for several years she cared for Tutankhamon as well. (It is possible that she also had sons, although no record has been found of this. It was a practice in Egyptian art not to portray the male heirs as children, therefore it is possible that Tutankhamen was her son). One of Nefertiti's daughters, Meket-Aten, died early in the twelfth year of Akhenaten's reign, and their mourning was shown on wall paintings. After the death of their daughter, Nefertiti disappeared from the court and vanished into obscurity. Nefertiti was replaced by a less prominent queen, Kiya, and her daughter, Meritaten. This next wife was believed to have died by the fourteenth year, though the hypothesis remains that she is Smenkhkare, the mysterious successor of Akhenaten. One of Nefertiti's daughters, Ankhesenamon, was the wife of King Tutankhamon. Upon the death of Tutankhamon, Ankhesenamon was determined to hold the throne herself. Ankhensenamon and another one of Nefertiti's daughters ascended to the throne. Nefertiti's mystery and her incredible beauty, attested by the famous bust sculpted in limestone at Thutmose's workshop in Akhet-Aten, make her one of the most intruiging personalities of Ancient Egypt. Her body has never been found.



Nekhbet (Nekhebet):
Nekhbet Hieroglyph Nekhbet and Buto (Note the Vulture on Nekhebet's Head)

Nekhebet was the vulture-goddess of Upper Egypt, and she was also a protective deity of the south along with Seth. (When Seth became disgraced as the murderer of Osiris, she became more important and prominent). Nekhebet was often associated with Buto, the Cobra-goddess, for together they symbolized a united Egypt protecting the Pharoah and his people. Nekhebet was often shown with her wings spread above the Pharaoh in a protective gesture. She was also called the "Right Eye of Re". Nekhebet was portrayed in paintings and sculptures as a vulture or as a woman wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt. In her hands she held a Lotus flower with a Cobra wrapped around it and an Ankh.







Osiris (Asar, Wesir, Ausar, Unnefer):
A Golden Statue of Osiris Osiris, God of the Underworld
Osiris ruled the world of men in the beginning, after Ra had abandoned the world to rule the skies. Osiris ended up an Egyptian god of the Underworld, and he was also worshipped as a fertility, resurrection, and vegetation god. He was married to Isis, and father to Horus and Anubis. Osiris was the first child of Nut and Geb, and therefore the brother of Seth (Set), Nephthys, and Isis. Osiris symbolized in his death the yearly drought, and in his miraculous rebirth the periodic flooding of the Nile and the growth of grain. He was a god-king who was believed to have given Egypt civilization. As the first son of Geb, the original king of Egypt, Osiris inherited the throne when Geb abdicated. At this time the Egyptians were barbarous cannibals and uncivilized. Osiris saw this and was greatly disturbed. He went out among the people and taught them what to eat, the art of agriculture, how to worship the gods, and gave them laws. Having civilized Egypt, Osiris traveled to other lands (leaving Isis as his regent) to teach other peoples what he taught the Egyptians. During Osiris' absence, Isis was troubled with Seth's plotting to acquire both her and the throne of Egypt. Shortly after Osiris' return to Egypt, Osiris was killed by his brother Seth (see our Legends Page for the entire story). It is as the King of the Afterlife that Osiris gained his supreme popularity. The name "Osiris" is the Greek corruption of the Egyptian name "Asar" or "Usar". Osiris was usually portrayed as a bearded, mummified human with green skin, wearing the atef crown, and his hands emerge from the mummy wrappings to hold the flail and crook.





Queen Hatshepsut's (The Woman Who Was King):

Queen Hatshepsut's Bust Queen Hatshepsut's Queen Hatshepsut's was the first great woman in recorded history, and she was the forerunner of such figures as Cleopatra, Catherine the Great, and Elizabeth I. She was the first wife and Queen of Thutmose II and on his death proclaimed herself Pharaoh, denying the old king's son, her nephew, his inheritance. To support her cause she claimed the God Amon-Ra spoke, saying "welcome my sweet daughter, my favorite, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare,Hatshepsut. Thou art the King, taking possession of the Two Lands." She dressed as a king, even wearing a false beard and the Egyptian people seem to have accepted this unprecedented behaviour. By riding into battle with her troops, Hatshepsut's was the forerunner to all the great African warrior queens. Despite the fact that she often dressed as a male, she never lost touch with her feminine side. Scribes wrote that she was "lovely to look at; graceful in her movements, and fragrant as a flower." She remained in power for twenty years and during this time the Egyptian economy flourished, she expanded trading relations and built magnificent temples as well as restoring many others. As a final blow to her detractors, Hatshepsut's ordered the creation of two of the largest most beautiful rose granite obelisks the world had every seen and presented them as gifts to the temple of Amen-Ra. (I will show one in our Egyptian Artworks page) There are current theories that she was Queen of Sheba. Eventually her nephew grew into a man and took his rightful place as Pharaoh. The circumstances of this event are unknown and what became of Hatshepsut is a mystery. Hatshepsut's successor became the greatest of all Pharaohs, Thutmose III, "the Napoleon of ancient Egypt." He had her name cut away from the temple walls in an attempt to wipe her from history...it didn't work. *wink*



Ramses III

The Entrance of Abu Simbel, Built by Ramses II and III Ramses III Ramses III ascended the throne after his father, Ramses II (who was conjectured to be the Pharoah of exile in the Old Testament). Ramses III was a great military leader who repeatedly saved his country from invasion. In the fifth year of his reign, Ramses defeated an attack by the Libyans from the West, and two years later he repelled invaders known as the Sea Peoples. In his 11th year he again repelled an attempted Libyan invasion. Ramses III was also known as a great builder of temples and palaces, and you can see some of his work on our Egyptian Artwork Page. Ramses III was considered the last of the great rulers of Ancient Egypt. After his death Egypt's history was followed by centuries of weakness and foreign domination and the end of the great dynasties.




Thoth:

Thoth

Thoth was the Ibis-headed Egyptian god of the moon, time, the calendar, of wisdom, and writing. His attribute is writing materials (pen and/or parchment). Along with Anubis he presided over the second "hearing" in Ma'at (the Hall of Judgement), where the deceased soul had to answer to forty-two judges regarding his life so it could be determined what would happen to him. Thoth presided there as a baboon.







Tutankhamun:

Tutankhamun's Burial Mask
He became Pharaoh when he was only about nine years of age. His was not a reign distinguished by great conquests or domestic achievement. Dominated by elder officials, Tutankhamun died at around the age of nineteen and was buried in a small tomb in the Valley of the Kings, in Thebes. Several hundred years later his tomb was lost completely when it was covered over with rubble dumped from above by workmen cutting a tomb for Rameses VI. He was among the most forgotten of Pharaohs, until 1922 when the dicovery of his tomb would rock the modern world with its thousands of priceless masterpieces of gold, jewelry, furniture, and art objects. The burial place of Tutankhamun remains the only royal Egyptian tomb discovered in modern times virtually intact. The rubble that consigned the tomb and its occupant to obscurity also protected it for over 30 centuries, preserving its treasures from the grave robbers of antiquity who looted so many other tombs. Under his uncle's influence (Commander Aye) Tut would restore the Egyptian society to polytheism, and rebuild much of what Akhenaten had destroyed. Tut changed his name from Tutankhaten: "living image of Aten", to Tutankhamen: "living image of Amen" in honor of the god Amen. When a king of Egypt ascended the throne, he would have five names, and the two most important were the prenomen and the nomen. The nomen was the king's own personal name. The prenomen, or throne name, is that name used to refer to the king as Pharaoh. Tutankhamen's prenomen was Nebkheperure, "The lordly manifestation of Re." Tutankhamen died at the age of 18 (under suspicious circumstances) and was succeeded by Aye because Tut had no children. Tut was to be buried at the Valley of the Kings, but the rule was that the king's widow had to remarry before the dead Pharoah could be buried, so Aye married his grandchild, Queen Anknesamun. Our Egyptian artworks page will be loaded with treasures from Tutankhamun's tomb.



Much More Coming....




Ancient Egyptian Dynasties...Starting With the Oldest and Working Down to the Last:


THE OLD KINGDOM:

1st dynasty 3I00 2890 BC:
Narmer
Aha
Djer
Djet
Den
Anedjib
Semerkhet
Qaa

2nd dynasty 2890-2686 BC:
Hetepsekhemwy
Raneb
Nynetjer
Peribsen
Khasekhem (Khasekhemwy)

3rd dynasty 2686-2613 BC:
Sanakht
Djoser (He Built the Great Step Pyramid at Saqqara)
Sekhemkhet
Huni

4th dynasty 2613-2494 BC: (Built the Pyramids at Giza)
Sneferu
Cheops
Radjedef
Chephren
Menkaura
Shepseskaf

5th dynasty 2494-2345 BC:
Userkaf
Sahura
Neferirkara Kakai
Shepseskara Isi
Raneferef
Nyuserra
Menkauhor Akauhor
Djedkara Isesi
Unas

6th dynasty 2345-2181 BC:
Teti
Userkara
Pepy I
Merenra
Pepy II
At the end of this period Egypt went through some terrible trials...political failure, environmental disaster, famine, civil disorder and a rise in the death rate. This period was known as: First Intermediate Period: 7th and 8th dynasties 2181- 2125 B.C.

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM:

11th dynasty 2125-1991 BC:

Intef I
Intef II
Intef III
Mentuhotep I
Mentuhotep II
Mentuhotep III

12th dynasty 1991-1782 BC:

Amenemhet I
Sesostris I
Amenemhet II
Sesostris II
Sesostris III
Amenemhet III
Amenemhet IV
Queen Sobeknefru (the first female monarch marked the end of the dynastic line)

13th dynasty 1782-1650 BC:

Wegaf
Intef IV
Hor
Sobekhotep II
Khendjer
Sobekhotep III
Neferhotep I
Sobekhotep IV
Ay Neferhotep II

14th dynasty: only lasted for around 57 years

And then Egypt went through it's second terrible time: The Second Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom fell because of the weakness of its later kings, which lead to Egypt being invaded by an Asiatic, desert people called the Hyksos. These invaders made themselves kings and held the country for more than two centuries. They presented themselves as Egyptian kings and appear to have been accepted as such. They tolerated other lines of kings within the country, both those of the 17th dynasty and the various minor Hyksos who made up the 16th dynasty.

15th dynasty 1650-1550 BC:

Sheshi
Yakubher
Khyan
Apepi I
Apepi II

16th dynasty 1650-1550 BC:

Anather
Yakobaam

17th dynasty 1650-1550 BC:

Sobekemsaf
Intef VII
Tao I
Tao II
Kamose

THE NEW KINGDOM


18th dynasty 1550-1295 BC:

Ahmose (Ahmose, the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty, expelled the Hyksos from Egypt)
Amenhotep I
Thutmose I
Thutmose II
Hatshepsut
Thutmose III
Amenhotep II
Thutmose IV
Amenhotep III
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamen
Ay (Tut's uncle)
Horemheb (good possibility he was Tut's murderer)

19th dynasty 1295-1186 BC:

Rameses I
Seti I
Rameses II (Some Think He Was the Pharoah of exile in the Old Testament)
Merenptah
Amenmessu
Sety II
Saptah
Tausret

20th dynasty 1186-1069 BC:

Setnakht
Rameses III (The Last, Great King)
Rameses IV
Rameses V
Rameses VI
Rameses VII
Rameses VIII
Rameses IX
Rameses X
Rameses XI

After Rameses III, Egypt began to suffer economic problems and a break down in their fabric of society. It was the sad end of a great dynastic rule without outside "foreign" influence.

LATE PERIOD I


Psusennes I
Shoshenk I
Osoraken I
Tefnakht
Shabaka
Herodotus
Necho II


PERSIAN PERIOD I


Cambyses
Darius I
Xerxes
Artaxeres

LATE PERIOD II


Amyrteos
Nectanebo I

PERSIAN PERIOD II


Artaxerxes III
Darius III

GREEK DYNASTY


Alexander
Pompey
Arsinoe II
Ptolemy I
Cleopatra VII (The Last Pharoah...was of Greek Heritage)

Augustus Caesar (Octavian)

Egypt Falls to the Roman Empire by Octavian's Overthrow...See Our Section on Cleopatra For Details.





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Credits:


Studies in Egyptian Mythology by Sir E.A. Wallis-Budge


Egyptian Religion by Siegfried Morenz


Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark